Rambam (Maimonides) spokes of ten types of angel, the Chayos hakodesh, Ophanim, Arelim, Hashmalim, Seraphim, Malechim, Elohim, Bnai Elohim, Cherubim and Ishim.

In post-canonical and apocalyptic literature angels are grouped in varying orders. The commonly used hierarchy of nine orders is that popularised by the Pseudo-Aeropagite or Pseudo -Dionysius (early 5th century) in his De Hierarchia Celesti, which arranges them in three triads:

  • Seraphim, Cherubim and Thrones in the first circle, who contemplate God and reflect his glory
  • Dominions, Virtues and Powers in the second circle, who regulate the stars and the universe
  • Principalities, Archangels and Angels in the third circle, who minister to humanity

The seven holy angels are Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Chamuel, Jophiel and Zadkiel.

Milton gives a list of the fallen angels in Paradise Lost, Book I, 392

Mohammedans say that angels were created from pure bright gems; the genii from fire and man from clay. In some branches of Roman Catholic belief, each human soul has a Guardian Angel to protect and watch over it.

“Zoroastrianism [dualism] is alleged by some to be responsible for many folklore elements in Jewish theology, especially for its angelology. But although later generations in Judaism did speak of Satan and a whole hierarchy of angels, these were invariably thought of as absolutely the creatures of God. To attribute divine powers to any of these beings, and deem them independent of God, or in any way on a par with the Supreme Being, would at all time have been deemed in Jewry to be wild blasphemy. It is noteworthy that the Jewish mystics placed man - because he is endowed with free will - higher in the scale of spiritual existence than any mere 'messenger', which is the literal translation of the word angel as well as of its Hebrew original Maloch". Singer p920